The Ten Commandments is contained in Exodus 20:2-17 and contain ten basic principals for both loving God and loving others. The first 4 tell you how to love God and the remaining 6 tell you how to love others. The Ten Commandments are repeated a generation later in Deuteronomy 5:6-21.
"I am Yahweh thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me." [Exodus 20:2-3]
Yahweh and Yahweh alone is to be your God. You are to serve only him.
"Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I Yahweh thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments." [Exodus 20:4-6]
You are not to make for yourself anything to worship God with. This is counted as worshiping other gods, even if you believe you are worshiping Yahweh.
"Thou shalt not take the name of Yahweh thy God in vain; for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain." [Exodus 20:7]
The word translated as "take" is "nasa", which means "to bear", "to lift up", or "to carry". The word translated as "vein" is "shav", which means "falsehood", or "evil". So this command literally means "do not do evil in God's name". And those who do evil in God's name will not be forgiven.
"Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of Yahweh thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: for in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." [Exodus 20:8-11]
The first six days of the week (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday) are the days God has said work is to be done. But the seventh day (Saturday) is the Sabbath. On it, you are to rest and do no work! Those who work on the seventh day (Saturday) break the Sabbath.
"Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which Yahweh thy God giveth thee." [Exodus 20:12]
Submit to the authority of your parents. This is the first command given that comes with a promise: That you will live long in the land that God gives you.
"Thou shalt not kill." [Exodus 20:13]
"Thou shalt not commit adultery." [Exodus 20:14]
For a man, adultery is having sexual relationships with another man's wife. For a married woman, adultery is having sexual relationships with a man other than her husband. Is is impossible for an unmarried woman to commit adultery.
"Thou shalt not steal." [Exodus 20:15]
You shall not take that which you do not have permission from the owner to take.
"Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." [Exodus 20:16]
You shall not bring or support a false accusation or report against your neighbor. Nor should you bring or support a false accusation or report in favor of your neighbor. All accusations or reports concerning your neighbor must be truthful. In short: Do not commit perjury. This commandment is commonly simplified as "you shall not lie". But that is a different command altogether. This command specifically deals in matters concerning testimony for or against another person.
"Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor's." [Exodus 20:17]
You shall not desire to have anything or anyone that you cannot have. In Matthew 5:28, Jesus equates coveting your neighbor's wife with adultery of the heart. This is the only commandment that cannot be enforced by humans.
The Law is The Ten Commandments
It is a common misconception that the entirety of God's Law is contained within the 10 commandments. This is refuted by passages such as Deuteronomy 17:19, which is also a part of God's Law. The claim is also refuted by the fact that the majority of the rules to be followed are not found within the 10 Commandments. Everything from Genesis through Deuteronomy is God's Law.